For the direct current (DC) resistivity method is sensitive to groundwater, it is widely used in underground engineering, such as mines and tunnels,
The article describes how the main operational problems were overcome. underground mining; small-scale mining; drill and blast;
Fang et al. have simulated the tunnel deformation under the caved zone. The tunnel was damaged by the underground coal mine; tunnels were cracked mainly
The research methods in this work considered the effect of granular rock and the range of surface caving. The ultimate underground mining depth in this work
Coal seams can be mined by surface or underground methods (Figure 4.3), Bullinger et al., 2006), and in a few cases, commercialized (e.g.,
Tunnels under construction; Underground mines; Surface mines and quarries. Offering safety classes for mine operators and employees
International Journal of Mining, Reclamation and Environment Surface and underground excavations – methods, techniques and equipment.
Tunnels have many uses: for mining ores, for transportation—including road the surface, constructing the structure, and then covering with backfill.
cultures of mining work, and (3) ways that miners coped with the uncertainties al ing and processing ton mining still occurs at analysis of surface ev.
El Teniente - the world's largest underground copper mine - is located at an altitude of 1,500 to 1,900 metres in the Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins